TIMELINE | 400 to 2000 | CZECH REPUBLIC
 
Date Country | Description
 833 A.D. Czech Republic  
  The establishment of Great Moravia (Moravia, western Slovakia, parts of Hungary, Austria, Bohemia and Poland).
 863 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Spread of Christianity, arrival of missionaries Constantine (Cyril) and Methodius; establishment of Old Slavonic language, Glagolitic script. Archbishopric established. Conflicts with Frankish empire, invasions of Hungarian tribes. The foundation of Prague Castle.
 965 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Prague described in narration of Jewish-Arabian merchant Ibn Jákúb. Establishment of first (Benedictine) monasteries and Prague bishopric (974). Foundation of the Czech state under the Przemyslid dynasty.
 1031 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Origination of the Moravian Margraviate as part of the Czech state, with main centres Znojmo, Brno and Olomouc.
 1063 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Founding of Olomouc bishopric. Vratislav II made first Czech King (1085). The first Czech chronicle known as the Chronicle of Cosmas. Premonstratensian and Cistercian monasteries founded (1140).
 1212 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Golden Bull of Sicily: Roman King Friedrich II defines the relationship between Czech kings and the Holy Roman Empire. The Czech king becomes one of seven electors privileged to elect the Roman king.
 1234 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Establishment of towns. German colonisation. Invasion of the Mongolians (1241). Introduction of mining law (1249), the provincial court (1253) and provincial statutes. The Inquisition introduced (1257).
 1278 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Přemysl Otakar II killed at Battle of the Moravian Field. Under his rule, the Czech lands reached to the shores of the Adriatic. Bohemia governed by Otto of Brandenburg, Moravia by Rudolph of Habsburg.
 1283 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Wenceslas II crowned King of Bohemia. Minting of Prague kreuzers, the most sought-after European silver currency. Wenceslas crowned King of Poland 1300, of Hungary 1301. The murder of Wenceslas III (1306) ended male line of Przemyslid dynasty.
 1310 A.D. Czech Republic  
  John of Luxemburg marries Elizabeth Przemyslid. First Czech-langauge publication Dalimil Chronicle (1314); the first guild code in the Czech lands published (1318).
 1334 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Charles IV appointed Margrave of Moravia.
 1344 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Building of St Vitus Cathedral at Prague Castle commenced (master builder: Matthias of Arras, followed by Peter Parler). Foundation of Prague archbishopric.
 1346 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Charles IV elected Roman king. The period of his rule embraced the greatest flourishing of the Czech lands. Origination of the Czech crown jewels. Cult of St Wenceslas disseminated.
 1348 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Charles IV’s major projects: revival of Slavonic liturgy (1347); foundation of New Town (1348), making Prague the largest European city; establishment of Prague University, the first in Central Europe; provincial statutes in Brno and Olomouc.
 1355 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Charles IV is the first Czech sovereign to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor. In 1356 he issued the Golden Bull confirming the autonomous Czech state and making the Czech king foremost among the electors.
 1357 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Completion of Karlštejn Castle: Emperor’s residence housing the Czech and imperial crown jewels, the archive and relics of saints. The construction of the Stone (now Charles) Bridge, Prague.
 1376 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Wenceslas IV inherits Czech crown. Completion of the oldest Czech translation of the Bible. Klaret’s (Claretus) attempt to create Czech scholarly terminology. Discord among the king, his brothers and the aristocracy.
 1409 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Decree of Kutná Hora adjusts the university voting rights between the Czechs and other nationalities. Jan Hus appointed university chancellor. Origins of the Hussite reformation movement, critical of church rule.
 1415 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Hus burned at the stake at the assembly of the Council of Constance. Struggles between Catholics and Utraquists (“heretics”). Crusades, plundering of monasteries and churches, iconoclasm.
 1434 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Battle of Lipany, defeat of the Hussites. Sigismund of Luxemburg crowned Czech king (1436). The Basle “Compacts” acknowledging the communion of bread and wine.
 1453 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Hungarian King Ladislaus Pohrobek takes the Czech throne. Order to evict Jews from royal towns. George of Poděbrady elected Czech king (1485). Attempt to create union of European rulers aiming to avert Turkish expansion, restrict Catholic church hegemony and secure peace.
 1467 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Fraternal Union. The origination of an independent church picking up the threads of Hussite ideology. War in Moravia. Matthias Corvinus against George of Poděbrady.
 1476 A.D. Czech Republic  
  The first printed work issued in the Czech lands: Statutes for the Prague Diocese (Pilsen printing works).
 1478 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Olomouc Agreement: Matthias Corvinus rules Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia, Vladislav Jagellon rules Bohemia. After Matthias’s death (1490) Vladislav appointed King of Hungary.
 1519 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Adherents of Martin Luther, the German religious reformer, appear in Prague. Outbreak of conflicts among Catholics, Utraquists and Lutherans. Anabaptists in Moravia.
 1526 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Battle of Mohacs. Ludwig Jagellon defeated by the Turks, the dynasty died out. According to a contract from 1515, the Czech throne passes to the Habsburg dynasty. Anti-Habsburg movement of the Czech Estates.
 1556 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Arrival of the Jesuit order; suppression of non-Catholics. The first independent map of Moravia (1569); the establishment of a university in Olomouc (1573). Fraternal Union published the Kralice Bible (1579); its language became the official norm.
 1583 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Emperor Rudolph II transfers his court to Prague, which became a major European centre of politics, science and arts (de Brahe, Kepler). The first public autopsy (Ján Jesenský, 1600).
 1608 - 1609 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Disputes between Rudolph II and his brother Matthias. Moravian Estates led by Karel of Žerotín join the associations of Austrian and Hungarian Estates. Imperial charter issued by Rudolph II confirms religious freedom (1609); however, discord continues.
 1618 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Assembly of non-Catholic Estates. ’Prague Defenestration’ incident sparked a rising of the Czech Estates against the Habsburgs and the outbreak of the Thirty Years’ War. Czech Estates joined by Moravian and Austrian aristocracy and Frederick, Elector Palatine (Czech king 1619–20).
 1620 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Estates defeated at Battle of White Mountain resulting in mass punishment and persecution. Uprising of the Wallachians (Carpathian pastoral culture). Charles University made over to the Jesuits.
 1627 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Restored administration. The highest Czech administrative institutions transferred to Vienna. German made equal with Czech, Catholicism became the only religion. Extensive confiscations and emigrations.
 1648 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Peace of Westphalia marks the end of the Thirty Years’ War. Habsburg rule in the Czech lands officially acknowledged. Moravia lost almost half of its population. Inflow of foreign aristocracy. Brno became the capital of Moravia.
 1680 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Largest uprising of the serfs. Patents of King Leopold I include: corvée patent, legalisation of the Evangelical church (1691). The first textile manufactories.
 1683 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Vienna was surrounded by Turkish armies and Moravia was plundered before the Turks were forced back to the Balkans. The last Turkish war in Europe.
 1704 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Highlights of the Czech radical baroque: construction of Church of St. Nicholas, Prague, began (architect K. Dienzenhofer). Charles Bridge embellished with statues by M. B. Braun and F. Brokof.
 1713 A.D. Czech Republic  
  The Pragmatic Sanction: Charles VI declared the heritability of the Habsburg crown in the female line in default of a male heir, and the indivisibility of the countries of the House of Habsburg. Plague endemics.
 1717 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Establishment of the Czech Engineering School in Prague. New patent against non-Catholics. Heresy declared a crime against the state, non-Catholics punishable by death.
 1719 A.D. Czech Republic  
  The first Czech periodical newspaper (Prague). Moravian aristocracy in service of the empire. Viennese artists in Moravia. Development of pilgrimages; church celebrations.
 1729 A.D. Czech Republic  
  The beatification of St. John of Nepomuk, drowned in the Vltava (Prague) in 1393. The most popular saint in the Czech lands, Lower Austria and southern Germany.
 1740 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Maria Theresa ascends throne (d. 1780). Invasion of the Prussian army leads to inheritance wars over the Czech crown. Unifying style known as ’Pragmatic Sanction in art’.
 1754 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Census: 3 million people in the Czech lands. Introduction of astandardised system of measures and weights. P. Diviš constructed the first lightning conductor. V. A. Kounic-Rietberg became court and state chancellor.
 1773 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Pope Kliment XIV issues a bull abolishing the Jesuit order. Establishment of learned societies; compulsory school attendance introduced (1774). Peasant uprisings. Origins of the Czech National Enlightenment. The first history of Moravian art published.
 1777 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Olomouc bishopric promoted to archbishopric. Foundation of a bishopric in Brno. Abolition of serfdom. Riots of the Evangelicals in Wallachia.
 1781 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Reforms under Emperor Joseph II: tolerance patent permitting non-Catholicism (Catholicism remains the official religion). Abolition of serfdom. Closure of monasteries not dedicated to publicly beneficial work.
 1789 A.D. Czech Republic  
  V. M. Kramerius publishes the first Czech revival newspaper, the first mass reading material in the Czech language in 170 years.
 1791 A.D. Czech Republic  
  The first industrial exhibition in Klementinum, Prague. Beginnings of the Czech linguistics. Origins of the nationalist movement. Establishment of the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague (1799).
 1805 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Battle of Austerlitz (Battle of Three Emperors). Austria, Prussia and Russia defeated by Napoleon.
 1814 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Establishment of the first public museums (Opava). The first long-distance railway in Europe (České Budějovice–Linz, 1825). J. E. Purkyně introduces cell theory. Disturbances among workers and peasants.
 1848 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Bourgeois revolution demanding end of absolutism, equality of Czech with German, freedom of the press and religion. Abolition of serfdom and the corvée obligation. Slavic Assembly tries to found a Slavic association within the monarchy and turn it into a federal state.
 1866 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Prussian–Austrian War. Establishment of workers’ associations. J. G. Mendel pioneers genetics. The foundation stone of the National Theatre, Prague laid (1868).
 1879 A.D. Czech Republic  
  F. Křižík invents the self-acting regulator of the arc lamp, the first electrical lighting. His invention was received to great worldwide acclaim. The first telephone network introduced (1882).
 1891 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Establishment of the Czech Academy of Science. K. V. Klíč invents photogravure. The first automobile with a combustion engine in the monarchy (1897); first Czech motorbike and cinema (1898). Widespread emigration to the USA due to the economic depression.
 1907 A.D. Czech Republic  
  J. Janský publishes his discovery of four blood groups. Introduction of the right to vote. Workers’ strikes. The first permanent cinema.
 1918 A.D. Czech Republic  
  Establishment of the independent Czechoslovak state after the end of the First World War. President T. G. Masaryk elected (1920) (d. 1937). Origins of the theory of art and art history institutions.